Waterproof Pack Cover needs to be large enough to protect items strapped to the exterior of the pack.
Scoop and toilet paper: A light weight plastic shovel for digging “cat holes” is required in wilderness areas.Store sufficient unscented toilet paper in a zip lock bag along with a small (2 ounce) bottle of hand sanitizer (“Purell”) for hand washing.Note: sleeping bags should not be stored in the stuff-sack at home, as this will mat the filling, causing a reduction in loft, and thus warmth.Bags are best stored in “cloth storage bags” or left laying as loose as possible.Personal Gear (should weigh less than 15 pounds) Backpack and rain cover (garbage bag OK) Sleeping bag in a waterproof stuff sack Sleeping pad (pillow optional) Personal first aid kit Two water bottles – minimum 2 liters total Two small flashlights Scoop and toilet paper Mess Kit (bowl, cup, utensils) Light towel and/or bandanna Sunglasses Carabiner Emergency Food Personal Items (Toothbrush, soap, glasses, contact solution, medicines) Emergency Kit in a bag: compass, pocket knife, sunscreen, chap stick, signaling devices (whistle and mirror), paper and pencil, map in a waterproof bag, matches in a waterproof bag, water purifier tablets, duct tape, insect repellent, two zip lock bags, two garbage bags Nice to Have: Walking Sticks, Stool or Chair, Waterproof Watch, Camera, Mosquito Hat, Wire Saw, Spices for food, Fishing Pole Clothing – including what you wear (Should weigh less than eight pounds): Sturdy hiking boots (broken in) Water shoes/camp shoes 2-3 pair non-cotton socks 2-3 pair sock liners (optional) 2 Hiking shorts or pants (one pair of long pants and something for swimming) 0-2 pair underwear 2 T-shirts and one long sleeve shirt Rain gear or poncho Hat or Cap (Wide Brim) Warm heavy shirt, sweater, sweatshirt or jacket (no cotton) Fleece pants or long underwear bottoms Gloves or glove liners and warm hat Many new backpackers bring too many clothes.
The basic rule is wear one set of clothes and pack one change of clothes unless weather is a major consideration.
For extended treks the internal frame pack should have a volume over 3,000 cubic inches (50 liters), but less than 4,200 cubic inches (70 liters).
The larger the pack, the greater the tendency to fill it with non-essentials.
Down bags are not good because they are ineffective when wet.
The sleeping bag should have a comfort rating from 20° to 30° and should weigh no more than 3.5 pounds, but preferably less.
Some backpacks are waterproof, but like a tent, the seams need to be sealed.