King Charles XII of Sweden had the most modern and well equipped army in all of Europe.
Though the study of Russia provides an interesting case in military history, it is no anomaly.War is a chaotic system, infinitely complex in its variables and conditions, but analysis of recent and historical conflicts suggest that some factors play larger roles than others in the decisiveness of war.The advancement of weapons changes how wars are fought, but leadership, training, moral, and most importantly, political strategy dictate how wars are won.First, a empirical perspective of wars must be considered.So then what happens during this stage of imbalance?
Feudal Russia again provides an excellent example of the competitor in technological lag.
Sixty-five years ago a comparably under-trained and poorly supplied army of peasant Russians defeated the Nazi war machine, the most formidable and professional army in history.
Using improvised munitions and rifles designed in the previous century these inexperienced conscripts repelled elite Panzer tank corps across hundreds of miles, how?
Napoleon was famous for winning battles against opponents four times in size through sheer manipulation of geography and maneuver.
In World War II (WWII) General Zhukov of the Soviet Union accomplished a similar feat by surrounding and starving the mechanized German 6 Army in the Russian winter.
Despite such critical advancements in the early 1700s, “only the Russians and Turks continued to issue old, heavy matchlock muskets, to the detriment of their infantry firepower”.